Stakeholder Engagement

Stakeholder engagement is a process which entails bringing in all parties involved in a policymaking process to ensure that they are represented in discussions in all elements of the policy cycle (Gains & Stoker, 2009). As representative democracy has evolved, particularly through the use of new Information and Communication Technologies, the approach to involving more stakeholders in policymaking has become apparent (Marinetto, 2003). It has emerged as a key challenge in the 21st Century in politically developed societies, as one of the central political innovations that is taking place (Newman, 2010). This is related to an increase in the desire for political institutions to show more openness and transparency in their activities, which is part of the process of building good governance (see, for example Sœbø et al, 2008). One primary example comes from the Directorate General CONNECT's (European Commission) Stakeholder Engagement Strategy/Approach.

Related terms: Governance, Policy Analysis, Public Policy, Public Value Management (PVM)


Gains, F., & Stoker, G. (2009). Delivering “Public Value”: Implications for accountability and legitimacy. Parliamentary Affairs, 62(3), 438–455.

Marinetto, M. (2003). Who wants to be an active citizen? Sociology, 37(1), 103–120.

Newman, J. (2010). Remaking Governance: Peoples, Politics and the Public Sphere. Policy Press.

Sæbø, Ø., Rose, J., & Flak, L. S. (2008). The shape of eParticipation: Characterizing an emerging research area. Government Information Quarterly, 25(3), 400–428. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2007.04.007

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